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Home About LSO Legislation & Rules Permitted Criminal Code Summary Conviction Offences for Regulated Agents

Permitted Criminal Code Summary Conviction Offences for Regulated Agents as of September 19, 2019

This page provides a list of summary conviction offences in the Criminal Code for which licensed paralegals, lawyer licensing candidates, and law students may provide legal services in Ontario as of September 19, 2019
 
  • Purpose
    The specific purpose of this document is to detail the summary conviction offences in the Criminal Code for which licensed paralegals, lawyer licensing candidates, and law students may provide legal services, pursuant to the Law Society’s By-Laws.
     
  • Authority

    Under the Criminal Code(section 802.1), persons accused of summary conviction offences are limited in their right to appear before criminal courts by agent. The agent must be authorized to do so under a program approved by the lieutenant governor in council of a province.

    In Ontario, Order in Council 1115/2019 orders as follows: “For the purposes of section 802.1 of the Criminal Code (Canada), the regulation of persons authorized to practice law or provide legal services by the Law Society of Ontario under the Law Society Act, including its determination of who may appear or examine or cross examine witnesses as an agent on summary conviction offences, is an approved program” This Order is in force as of September 19, 2019.

    The Law Society permits licensed paralegals, lawyer licensing candidates, and law students to appear as “agents” on certain summary conviction offences. Specifically, these are offences that were punishable by a maximum penalty of imprisonment for a term of six months or less when proceeding by summary conviction as of September 18, 2019 (immediately prior to the day on which federal Bill C-75’s amendments to default maximum penalties for summary conviction offences under the Criminal Code came into force).

    More detailed information about the scope of legal services that can be provided in Ontario by licensed paralegals, lawyer licensing candidates, and law students is set out in By-Law 4 and By-Law 7.1. More detailed information about the appearance rights for lawyer licensing candidates and law students is also set out in the Rights of Appearance.

  • Limitations

    The list of summary conviction offences in the Criminal Code on this page is current to September 19, 2019.  Subsequent legislative or regulatory amendments may affect the list.

    If you become aware of an issue with the accuracy of this list, please contact the Law Society.

    Hybrid offences are indictable offences until the Crown elects to proceed by summary conviction. Licensed paralegals may not provide legal services to persons accused of hybrid offences until the Crown elects to proceed by summary conviction.  Except to appear on remands and consent adjournments, lawyer licensing candidates and law students also may not provide legal services to persons accused of hybrid offences until the Crown chooses to proceed by summary conviction.

    Some federal statutes other than the Criminal Code create offences that can be prosecuted by summary conviction. Examples are the Cannabis Act and the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Such offences are not listed on this page. Licensed paralegal, lawyer licensing candidates, and law students may appear as “agents” on any such offences that were, as of September 18, 2019, punishable by a maximum penalty of six months’ imprisonment or less when proceeding by summary conviction.

    This page is intended as a reference for the professions and the public. It is not a substitute for consulting the offence-creating legislation, the Law Society’s by-laws, and relevant court decisions to determine whether a licensed paralegal, a lawyer licensing candidate or a law student may represent an accused on a criminal matter.

    The information on this page is not intended as legal advice and should not be relied upon as such.

    The Law Society accepts no responsibility for any errors or omissions and expressly disclaims any such responsibility.

  • List of Permitted Criminal Code Summary Conviction Offences for Regulated Agents as of Sept. 19, 2019

    *Note 1: The offences listed below are generally described in accordance with the marginal notes provided in the Criminal Code.

    *Note 2: In some instances, the Criminal Code establishes an offence in one provision and establishes the penalty for that offence in another provision. For ease of reference, in such instances, this list generally refers only to the relevant penalty provision. The offence provision must be matched to its listed penalty provision to determine whether a licensed paralegal, lawyer licensing candidate or law student may act.

    • Criminal Code Summary Conviction Offences Carrying Maximum Penalties of Six Months’ Imprisonment Prior to Bill C-75 Coming into Force on September 19, 2019

      s. 54 – Assisting deserter
      s. 56 – Offences in relation to members of RCMP
      s. 66(1) – Unlawful assembly
      s. 83(1) – Engaging in prize fight
      s. 89(2) – Carrying weapon while attending public meeting
      s. 134(1) – Perjury (where not required to make oath, etc)
      s. 174(1) – Nudity
      s. 175(1) – Causing disturbance, indecent exhibition, loitering, etc
      s. 176(2)-(3) – Disturbing religious worship or certain meetings
      s. 177 – Trespassing at night
      s. 201(2) – Person found in or owner permitting use (gaming or betting house)
      s. 206(4) – Offence (buying ticket for unlawful lottery or game of chance)
      s. 207(3)(b) – Offence, participation in lottery scheme (permitted lotteries)
      s. 207.1(3)(b) – Offence, participation in lottery scheme (permitted lotteries, international cruise ship)
      s. 210(2) – Landlord, inmate, etc (common bawdy-house)
      s. 211 – Transporting person to bawdy-house
      s. 213(1)-(1.1) – Stopping or impeding traffic / Communication (relating to offering, providing or obtaining sexual services for consideration)
      s. 278.9(2) – Publication prohibited (in relation to production order)
      s. 278.95(2) – Publication prohibited (hearing to determine admissibility of evidence of complainant’s sexual activity)
      s. 320.19(2) – Operation while impaired – low blood drug concentration
      s. 320.36(4) – Unauthorized use of bodily substance / Unauthorized use or disclosure of results
      s. 335(1) – Taking motor vehicle or vessel or found therein without consent
      s. 339(2) – Dealer in second-hand goods (lumbering equipment without owner’s consent)
      s. 353(3)-(4) – Fail to keep record of transaction, sale of automobile master key
      s. 364(1) – Fraudulently obtaining food, beverage or accommodation
      s. 393(3) – Fraudulently obtaining transportation
      s. 398 – Falsifying employment record
      s. 401(1) – Obtaining carriage by false billing
      s. 419 – Unlawful use of military uniforms or certificates
      s. 425 – Offences by employers
      s. 438(2) – Interfering with saving of wreck
      s. 439(1) – Interfering with marine signal (making fast vessel or boat)
      s. 442 – Interfering with boundary lines
      s. 447.1(2) – Breach of order (cruelty to animals)
      s. 454 – Slugs and tokens
      s. 456 – Defacing current coins
      s. 457(3) – Likeness of bank-notes
      s. 463(c) – Attempts, accessories – summary offences
      s. 464(b) – Counselling offence that is not committed – summary offences
      s. 465(1)(d) – Conspiracy – summary offences
      s. 486.6(1) – Offence (fail to comply with orders restricting publication: sexual offences, victims and witnesses)
      s. 487.0197 – Contravene preservation demand
      s. 487.0198 – Contravene preservation or production order
      s. 487.0199 – Destruction of preserved data
      s. 487.08(3) – Use of bodily substances
      s. 487.2 – Contravene restriction on publication (warrant)
      s. 490.0312 – Offence (obligation to advise police service, NCR outside of Canada)
      s. 517(2) – Failure to comply with order (Order directing matters not to be published for specified period)
      s. 539(3) – Failure to comply with order (Order restricting publication of evidence taken at preliminary inquiry)
      s. 542(2) – Restriction of publication of reports of preliminary inquiry (fail to comply re confession or admission of accused)
      s. 648(2) – Restriction on publication (fail to comply re portion of trial where jury absent)
      s. 649 – Disclosure of jury proceedings
      s. 672.37(3) – Authorizing application for federal employment requiring applicant to disclose an NCR verdict where applicant discharged absolutely or not subject to disposition
      s. 672.501(11) – Failure to comply (Order restricting publication – sexual offences, NCR)
      s. 732.11(4) – Prohibition on use of bodily substance (contravene, re probation)
      s. 742.31(4) – Prohibition on use of bodily substance (contravene, re conditional sentence)
      s. 810.4(4) – Prohibition on use of bodily substance (contravene, re recognizance)

    • Criminal Code Hybrid Offences Carrying Maximum Penalties of Six Months’ Imprisonment When Proceeding By Summary Conviction Prior to Bill C-75 Coming into Force on September 19, 2019
      s. 56.1(4) – Identity Documents
      s. 57(2) – False statement in relation to passport
      s. 66(2) – Unlawful assembly with concealment of identity
      s. 73 – Forcible entry, forcible detainer
      s. 83.231(2) – Hoax – terrorist activity
      s. 86(3) – Careless use of firearm / Contravention of storage regulations
      s. 87(2) – Pointing a firearm
      s. 88(2) – Possession of weapon for dangerous purpose
      s. 90(2) – Carrying concealed weapon
      s. 91(3) – Unauthorized possession of firearm / prohibited weapon or restricted weapon
      s. 93(2) – Possession at unauthorized place (firearm /weapon)
      s. 94(2) – Unauthorized possession in motor vehicle (firearm /weapon)
      s. 101(2) – Transfer without authority (firearm / weapon)
      s. 104(2) – Unauthorized importing or exporting (firearm /weapon)
      s. 105(2) – Losing or finding without reporting (firearm / weapon)
      s. 106(2) – Destroying without reporting (firearm / weapon)
      s. 107(2) – Making false statements (in relation to ss. 105-6)
      s. 108(2) – Tampering with serial number (firearm / weapon)
      s. 117.01(3) – Possession contrary to order / Failure to surrender authorization (firearm / weapon)
      s. 121.1(4)(b) – Selling, etc, of tobacco products and raw leaf tobacco
      s. 127(1) – Disobeying order of court
      s. 129 – Offences relating to public or peace officer
      s. 130(2) – Personating peace officer
      s. 139(1) – Obstructing justice
      s. 140(2) – Public mischief
      s. 145(1)-(5.1) – Escape and being at large without excuse
      s. 160(1)-(2) – Bestiality / Compelling commission of bestiality
      s. 162(5) – Voyeurism
      s. 162.1(1) – Publication, etc, of an intimate image without consent
      s. 169 – Obscene material / Immoral theatrical performance / Mailing obscene matter
      s. 173(1)-(2) – Indecent act / Exposure
      s. 204(10) – Contravention (regulatory offences related to horse racing / betting)
      s. 207(3)(a) – Offence, conduct, management, operation of lottery scheme (permitted lotteries)
      s. 207.1(3)(a) – Offence, conduct, management, operation of lottery scheme (permitted lotteries, international cruise ship)
      s. 241.31(4)-(5) – Offence, filing information / contravene regulations (medical practitioner / nurse practitioner / pharmacist in relation to medical assistance in dying)
      s. 263(3) – Duty to safeguard opening in ice / guard excavation on land
      s. 264(3) – Criminal harassment
      s. 264.1(3) – Uttering threats
      s. 266 – Assault
      s. 270(2) – Assaulting a peace officer
      s. 273.3(2) – Removal of child from Canada
      s. 282(1) – Abduction in contravention of custody order
      s. 283(1) – Abduction
      s. 319(1)-(2) – Public incitement of hatred / Wilful promotion of hatred
      s. 327(1) – Possession of device to obtain use of telecommunication facility or service
      s. 334(b) – Punishment for theft (under $5000)
      s. 342(1), (3) – Theft, forgery, etc of credit card / Unauthorized use of credit card data
      s. 342.01(1) - Instruments for copying credit card data or forging or falsifying credit cards
      s. 342.1(1) – Unauthorized use of computer
      s. 342.2(1) – Possession of device to obtain unauthorized use of computer system or to commit mischief
      s. 347(1) – Criminal interest rate
      s. 348(1)(e) – Breaking and entering with intent, committing offence or breaking out (place other than dwelling-house)
      s. 349(1) – Being unlawfully in dwelling-house
      s. 351(1) – Possession of break-in instrument
      s. 353.1(4) – Tampering with VIN
      s. 355(b) – Possession of property obtained by crime (under $5000)
      s. 355.5(b) – Trafficking in property obtained by crime (under $5000)
      s. 356(3) – Theft from mail
      s. 362(2)(b) – False pretence or false statement
      s. 367 – Punishment for forgery
      s. 368(1.1) - Use, trafficking or possession of forged document
      s. 368.1 – Forgery instruments
      s. 372(4) – False information / Indecent communications / Harassing communications
      s. 380(1)(b) – Fraud (less than five thousand dollars)
      s. 380.2(4) – Prohibition order (not comply, in relation to fraud)
      s. 382.1(2) – Tipping (insider trading)
      s. 402.2(5) – Identity theft / Trafficking in identity information
      s. 403(3) – Identity fraud
      s. 412(1) – Punishment: ss. 407, 408, 409, 410, 411 (Forgery of Trademarks and Trade descriptions)
      s. 415(g) – Offences in relation to wreck
      s. 417(2) – Unlawful transactions in public stores
      s. 420(1) – Military stores
      s. 422(1)(g) – Criminal breach of contract
      s. 423(1) – Intimidation
      s. 425.1(2) – Threats and retaliation against employees
      s. 430(3) – Mischief (testamentary instrument  / property exceeding $5000)
      s. 430(4) – Mischief (other property)
      s. 430(4.2) – Mischief in relation to cultural property
      s. 430(5) – Mischief in relation to computer data
      s. 430(5.1) – Commission or omission of act required by duty if likely to constitute mischief
      s. 432(1)-(2) – Unauthorized recording of a movie / Unauthorized recording for purpose of sale, etc
      s. 437 – False alarm of fire
      s. 446(2) – Causing damage or injury (captive animals conveyed or abandoned)
      s. 462.31(2) – Laundering proceeds of crime
      s. 462.33(11) – Restraint order (not comply)
      s. 463(d) – Attempts, accessories – hybrid offences
      s. 487.0552(1) – Failure to comply with order or summons
      s. 487.08(4) – Use of bodily substances
      s. 490.031(1) – Offence (fail to comply with order, National Defence Act, International Transfer of Offenders Act)
      s. 490.0311 – Offence (knowingly provide false information, Sex Offender Information Registration Act)
      s. 490.8(9) – Offence (contravene restraint order, offence related property)
       
    • Criminal Code Hybrid Offences Carrying Maximum Penalties of Six Months’ Imprisonment When Prosecuted By Summary Conviction Prior to Bill C-46 Coming into Force on December 21, 2018
      s. 320.13(1) – Dangerous operation
      s. 320.16(1) – Failure to stop after accident
      s. 320.17 – Flight from a peace officer
      s. 320.18(1) – Operation while prohibited