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Diversifying the Bar: For More Information

Suggested Readings, Websites, and Other Sources

 
Please see also the references to books, articles, newspaper stories and other sources in the biographies of individual lawyers. For more information on the Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History project, please click
 
For more information on the project, please click here for the Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History home page. 

On the history of diverse communities and the legal profession

 
Alexander, Lincoln M. Go to School, You're a Little Black Boy: The Honourable Lincoln M. Alexander, A Memoir. Hamilton: Dundurn Press, 1996.
 
Anderson, Ellen. Judging Bertha Wilson: Law as Large as Life. Toronto: The Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press, 2001.
 
Arthurs, H. W, J. Willms, and L. Taman. “The Toronto Legal Profession: An Exploratory Survey.” University of Toronto Law Journal 21, 4 (Autumn 1971), 498-528.
 
Backhouse, Constance. Colour-Coded: A Legal History of Racism in Canada, 1900 – 1950.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.
 
---. “Gender and Race in the Construction of ‘Legal Professionalism’: Historical
Perspectives,” Paper presented to the colloquia on Ontario’s Advisory Committee on Professionalism. Law Society of Upper Canada, 2003.
 
---. “A Revolution in Numbers”: Ontario Feminist Lawyers in the Formative Years 1970s to 1990s.” In The Promise and Perils of Law: Lawyers in Canadian History, edited by Constance Backhouse and W. Wesley Pue. Toronto: Irwin Law, 2009.
[Note Appendix B: Chronological List of Historical Sources on Women and the Law, 291-4]
 
Backhouse, Constance and W. Wesley Pue, eds. The Promise and Perils of Law: Lawyers in Canadian History. Toronto: Irwin Law, 2009.
 
Batten, Jack. Learned Friends: A Tribute to 50 Remarkable Ontario Advocates, 1900-1950.
Toronto: Irwin Law, 2005.
 
Bridgman, Sutapa. "Firsts and Notable Accomplishments by South Asian Men and Women of the Bar." South Asian Lawyers Association, 2002.
 
Brockman, Joan. “Exclusionary Tactics: The History of Women and Visible Minorities in the Legal Profession in British Columbia.” In Essays in the History of Canadian Law, vol. 6: British Columbia and the Yukon, ed. Hamar Foster and John McLaren. Toronto: The Osgoode Society, 1995.

---. Gender in the Legal Profession: Fitting or Breaking the Mould. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2001.

Bushby, Abby. "The Early Years." The Women's Law Association of Ontario. WLAO, 14 Jan. 2000. Web. 15 Aug. 2009.
 
Canadian Bar Association. Touchstones for Change: Equality, Diversity and Accountability: report of the Canadian Bar Association Task Force on Gender Equality in the Legal Profession. Canadian Bar Association, 1993.
 
Foster, Lorne. “Lawyers of Colour and Racialized Immigrants with Foreign Legal Degrees: An Examination of the Institutionalized Processes of Social Nullification.” International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory 2,1 (June 2009), 189-217.
 
Girard, Philip. Bora Laskin: Bringing Law to Life. Toronto: Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History, 2005.
 
---. "Politics, Promotion, and Professionalism: Sir Wilfrid Laurier's Judicial Appointments." In Essays in the History of Canadian Law: A Tribute to Peter N. Oliver edited by Jim Phillips, R. Roy McMurtry, and John T. Saywell. Toronto: The Osgoode Society, 2008.
 
Girard, Philip and Jeffrey Haylock. “Stratification, Economic Adversity, and Diversity in an Urban Bar: Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1900–1950.” In The Promise and Perils of Law: Lawyers in Canadian History, edited by Constance Backhouse and W. Wesley Pue, 75-
102. Toronto: Irwin Law, 2009.
 
Hagan, Joan, Marie Huxter, and Patricia Parker. “Class Structure and Legal Practice:
Inequality and Mobility Among Toronto Lawyers.” Law & Society Review 22, 1 (1988), 9-55.
 
Italian Canadiana 15 (2001). Special issue on Italian Canadians and the legal system. Web. www.utoronto.ca/iacobucci/archives.html.
 
Kaplan, William. Bad Judgment: The Case of Mr Justice Leo A. Landreville. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.
 
Kay, F. M. Barriers and Opportunities Within Law: Women in a Changing Legal Profession.
Toronto: Law Society of Upper Canada, 1996.
 
Kay, F. M., C Masuch and P. Curry. Diversity and Change: The Contemporary Legal Profession in Ontario. Toronto: Law Society of Upper Canada, 2004.
 
Law Society of Upper Canada. "Respect for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs: A Statement of Principles of the Law Society of Upper Canada," lsuc.on.ca. 10 March 2005.
 
Lewthwaite, Susan. “Reconstructing the Lives and Careers of Lawyers: Ethelbert Lionel Cross, Toronto’s First Black Lawyer.” In The Promise and Perils of Law: Lawyers in Canadian History, edited by Constance Backhouse and W. Wesley Pue, 193-223. Toronto: Irwin Law, 2009.
 
MacDowell, Laurel Sefton. Renegade Lawyer: The Life of J.L. Cohen. Toronto: Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History; University of Toronto Press, 2001.
 
Malcolm, Ian. “Robert Sutherland: The First Black Lawyer in Canada?” Law Society of Upper Canada Gazette 26:2 (June 1992).

McDougall, Bruce. “Law’s Changing Face,” Canadian Lawyer (November 1991), 14-7.

Moore, Christopher. The Law Society of Upper Canada and Ontario Lawyers, 1797-1997.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997.
 
Mossman, Mary Jane. “‘Contextualizing’ Bertha Wilson: Wilson as a Woman in Law in Mid- 20th Century Canada.” The Supreme Court Law Review 41, 2nd series (2008).
 
---. “The First Women Lawyers: ‘Piecemeal Progress and Circumscribed Success.” Osgoode Hall Law Journal 45,2 (2007), 379-395.
 
Omatsu, Maryka. "The Fiction of Judicial Impartiality." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 9,1 (1997), 1-16.
 
Ornstein, Michael. “The Changing Face of the Ontario Legal Profession, 1971-2001.” Toronto: Law Society of Upper Canada, 2004.
 
---. “Racialization and Gender of Lawyers in Ontario.” Toronto: Law Society of Upper Canada, April 2010.
 
Pelletier, Jean Yves. "Les juges de l'Ontario français." Revue du Nouvel-Ontario 10 (1989), 99- 111.
 
---. "La magistrature en Ontario français." Télé-Clef 4 (1989), 43.
 
---. Nos Magistrats. Ottawa: Éditions L'Interligne, 1989.
 
Ribordy, François-Xavier. "Cent ans de présence des avocats à Sudbury." Law Society of Upper Canada Gazette 27 (1983).
 
Saint-Jacques, Henri O. "Un siècle : Association du Barreau de Carleton. L'avocat canadien- français." Law Society of Upper Canada Gazette 23,1 (March 1989).
 
St. Lewis, Joanne and Benjamin Trevino. “The Challenge of Racial Equality: Putting Principles in Practice. Report of the Working Group on Racial Equality in the Legal Profession.” Ottawa: Canadian Bar Association, 1999.
 
St. Lewis, Joanne. “Virtual Justice: Systemic Racism and the Canadian Legal Profession.
An Independent Report of the Working Group on Racial Equality in the Legal Profession.” Ottawa: Canadian Bar Association, 1999.
 
Sworden, P. "'A Small United Nations': The Hamilton Firm of Millar, Alexander, Tokiwa, and Isaacs, 1962-1993." In Inside the Law: Canadian Law Firms in Historical Perspective, edited by C. Wilton, 469-97. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.
 
Talbot, Lance C. "History of Blacks in the Law Society of Upper Canada," Law Society of Upper Canada Gazette 24:1 (March 1990), 67-8
 
Walker, James W. St. G. “Race,” Rights and the Law in the Supreme Court of Canada: Historical Case Studies. Waterloo, On.: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1997.
 
Wilton, Carol, ed. Essays in the History of Canadian Law vol. 4 Beyond the Law: Lawyers and Business in Canada 1830 to 1930. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.
 
---. Essays in the History of Canadian Law vol. 7 Inside the Law: Canadian Law Firms in Historical Perspective. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

On the history of diverse communities in Canada

 
Ressources franco-ontariennes http://www.ropfo.ca/rfo/bibliographie.html
 
The Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. 1999. Multicultural Canada. http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca
 
Ethnic Groups Booklets published by Canadian Historical Association (downloadable from www.collectionscanada.gc.ca) Italians, Portuguese, Jews, West Indians, Hungarians,
Ukrainians, and many other groups
 
“Forging Our Legacy: Canadian Citizenship and Immigration, 1900–1977,” Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Pubic Works and Government Services, Canada. October 2000. Web. March 2010.
 
Jaenen, Cornelius J. ed. Les Franco-Ontariens. Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 1993.
 
Miller, J. R. Skyscrapers Hide the Heavens: A History of Indian-White Relations in Canada.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 3rd. ed, 2000.
 
Omatsu, Maryka. Bittersweet Passage: Redress and the Japanese-Canadian Experience. Toronto: Between the Lines, 1992.
 
Ontario Jewish Archives http://www.ontariojewisharchives.org/

Multicultural History Society of Ontario. Web. www.mhso.ca

Rogers, Edward S. and Donald B. Smith, eds. Aboriginal Ontario: Historical perspectives on the First Nations. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1994.
 
Speisman, Stephen. The Jews of Toronto: A History to 1937. Toronto, 1979.
 
Tulchinsky, Gerald J. J. Canada's Jews: A People's Journey. University of Toronto Press, 2008.
 
Walker, James W. St. G. “The ‘Jewish Phase’ in the Movement for Racial Equality in Canada.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 34 (2002,1), 1-29.
 
Whitaker, Reginald. Double Standard: the Secret History of Canadian Immigration. Toronto, Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1987.
 
Williams, Dawn. Who's Who in Black Canada 2: Black Success and Black Excellence in Canada, A Contemporary Directory. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.
 

Some suggestions for researching the lives of lawyers

 
  • Archival and primary sources on individual lawyers
 
Directories of lawyers. These appear under various titles, compilers, and publishers, and were published sporadically since 1856, as Upper Canada Law List, Upper Canada Directory, then Ontario Law List, Ontario Legal Directory, then annually from 1883 as Canadian Law List. The volumes include alphabetical lists of lawyers with dates called to the bar and/or admitted to the courts, and lawyers by place of practice; names of judges and officers of the court, advertisements, etc. For lawyers currently in practice, please see the Law Society Lawyer and Paralegal Directory and the Canadian Law List.
 
Law Society of Upper Canada. “Sole and Small Firm Practitioners History Project, Law Society of Upper Canada.” Includes guidelines for writing memoirs.
 
Law Society of Upper Canada Archives. Hellenic Canadian Lawyers Association Files.
 
Law Society of Upper Canada Archives. Womens' Law Association of Ontario fonds, Scrapbooks, PF58-19.
 
Library and Archives Canada, Canadian Genealogy Centre. Gateway to many resources. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/genealogy/022-905-e.html
 
Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History. Oral history programme description and list of interviewees. http://www.osgoodesociety.ca/oral_history_main.html
 
  • Obituaries and articles in newspapers
 
For obituaries of and articles featuring prominent lawyers, see Globe and Mail Heritage http://heritage.theglobeandmail.com Toronto Star

Pages of the Past http://pagesofthepast.ca/
 
A number of newspaper archives are available at Multicultural Canada, http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca
 
  • Journals and periodicals
 
Canadian legal periodicals are indexed in Index to Canadian Legal Literature, Canadian Abridgement (2nd ed.); Index to Canadian Legal Periodical Literature Index to Legal Periodicals (1981-); Index to Legal Periodicals Retrospective (1908-1980), and other research databases.
 
Journals that have featured stories on Ontario lawyers include:
 
Canadian Lawyer 1977 –
Law Times 1990 –
Obiter Dicta (Legal and Literary Society, Osgoode Hall Law School), 1927-
Ontario Lawyers Gazette 1997-
 
  • Other secondary sources for researching lawyers’ lives (most available online)
 
Charlesworth, Hector, ed. Cyclopaedia of Canadian Biography.  Toronto:  Hunter-Rose, 1919.
 
Cook, Ramsay and Réal Bélanger, editors. Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2000. http://www.biographi.ca

Dent, John Charles. The Canadian Portrait Gallery v. 1-4. Toronto: J. B. Magurn, 1880-1. Moore, Christopher. “Legal History.” http://www.christophermoore.ca/legalhistory.htm
Morgan, Henry James. The Canadian Men and Women of the Time: A Hand-book of Canadian Biography of Living Characters. v. 1 (1898) v. 2, (1912) Toronto: W. Briggs.
 
Rose, George Maclean, ed. A Cyclopaedia of Canadian Biography: Being Chiefly Men of the Time. V. 1-3. Toronto: Rose Publishing, 1886-1919, incorporated with and superseded by Canadian Who’s Who, Toronto, various publishers since 1910; since 1979, University of Toronto Press.
 
Wilkie, George et al. The Bench and Bar of Ontario. Toronto: Brown-Searle, 1905.
 
  • Local histories and county or district histories of the profession
 
Our Roots: Canada's Local Histories Online. http://www.ourroots.ca.
 
Carter, Francis G. The Middlesex Bench and Bar. London, On.: Middlesex Law Association, 1969.
 
Fitton, Michael. “Muskoka’s Lawyers 1860-2008.” Unpublished paper, available Law Society of Upper Canada Archives. 2009.
 
Honsberger, John D. The County of York law Association: A History of the First Hundred Years, 1885-1995. Toronto: County of York Law Association, 1989.
 
Johnson, William C. V., ed. The First Century: Essays on the History of the County of Carleton Law Association by Various Hands on the Occasion of the Associations’ Centenary, 1888-1988 (Ottawa?, On.: Bonanza Press Limited, 1988.
 
Prescott and Russell Law Association. "A Short Legal History of Prescott and Russell,"
Prescott and Russell Law Association. 2007. Web.
 
Ribordy, Francois-X. Les Avocats de Sudbury, 1891-1981 (Sudbury, On: Département de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie, Université Laurentienne, 1982), 219. Web. https://zone.biblio.laurentian.ca/dspace/handle/10219/110.
 
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