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Guide to Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History Project

Overview and Introduction

 
Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History is a project of the Heritage Committee of Convocation of the Law Society of Upper Canada. It is an attempt to enrich the history of the legal profession in Ontario by identifying and preserving the names, and recording the experiences and brief histories of path-breaking lawyers of diverse communities. Through nearly three hundred brief biographies, and in transcripts and other products of interviews and roundtables, participants in the Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History project address big themes from historical and personal perspectives.
 
From its beginnings in 1797 until at least the 1970s, the great majority of members of the legal profession of Ontario have been Anglophone men. By 2010, more women, people of colour, and individuals from a variety of traditions, cultures and groups were becoming lawyers than ever before.
 
These changes should be celebrated, not simply because these pathbreaking lawyers started the transformation of the legal profession in Ontario. Their communities of origin and the wider society have also benefitted.   The early lawyers of any given community were often the ones who first delivered legal services and information to people whose access to justice had been limited by linguistic or cultural barriers. Lawyers nearer the margins of the profession – and most lawyers of diverse communities have earned less and have less prestigious careers than the average – had to look farther for clients and opportunities. They pioneered new kinds of law, and saw advantages in serving clients from diverse communities other than their own. Other pathbreaking lawyers have become social, cultural and political leaders of their communities, some of them controversial; they have used their specialized knowledge and privileged status to speak out for immigrants and racialized communities, and to found and lead community organizations.  As well, the impact of a few exceptional lawyers resounds beyond their own communities. In the twentieth century, lawyers of diverse communities have pushed for equity and broader access to justice for all Ontarians.
 
Diversification of the bar has been a positive and important development in the history of access to justice and the law, therefore, but it is not perfectly realized: despite recent gains, most diverse communities, and in particular, racialized groups, still produce far fewer lawyers than their share of the population. This under-representation extends beyond rates of admission. Compared to Anglophone male lawyers, lawyers of many diverse communities today work for lower earnings; they are more often found in sole and small firm practice and in government, and specialize in less lucrative fields of law.1 Women and members of racialized groups also tend to leave the profession at a greater rate than Anglophone male members. In the past, their isolation and marginal status sometimes was reflected in difficult relationships with the Law Society. The challenges as well as successes of path-breaking lawyers should be remembered, because diversification is an ongoing process.
 
The representation of diverse groups varies considerably from group to group, and depends partly on the availability of primary and secondary sources and partly on the response from organizations associated with the communities. The catalog of names and short biographies is non-definitive and is still being amended. To jump to the biographies, please click here. For the interviews, click here. Summary tables are included as guides to the biographies, but the visitor should remember that this is not a study based on sampling.
 
In summary, by developing a catalog of biographies of early and exceptional lawyers, and through the recording of individual and group interviews, we hope, 
  • to recognize the challenges and celebrate the accomplishments of path-breaking lawyers of diverse communities;
  • to encourage research into the lives of lawyers who helped change the profession; and
  • to underline that discrimination is not a phenomenon only of the distant past; that it takes a variety of shapes, some formal, such as barriers to entry and others more subtle.

Defining the Diverse Communities

 
For the purposes of this project, lawyers of diverse communities are those who are not of Anglophone heritage, or those who, if Anglophone, also belong to another religious, ethnic or cultural community. This is not to suggest that lawyers from Anglo-American backgrounds do not merit attention; the history of all lawyers (as opposed to the history of the law) is an understudied field. (See For More Information for a brief bibliography of the history of the profession.) In particular, the multiple ways in which social class limited the numbers and careers of lawyers is worthy of study – particularly given the rising tuition, daunting prerequisites to entry, and other economic disincentives that are eroding the chances for satisfying legal careers in the present day.
 
Determining what is a diverse community at any period of time, and who belonged to it, has been a fascinating task. Terminology used in several Law Society reports, itself based on Statistics Canada usage, has been helpful for addressing the complexities of identifying diverse communities in the present day.2 Aboriginal peoples can be divided into First
Nations, Métis, and Inuit people. Visible minorities, also referred to as people of colour, are those who are neither Aboriginal nor of European origin. The phrase, “racialized communities,” includes both Aboriginal peoples and people of colour. In this project, the category of diverse communities also includes ethnocultural groups who share or shared a language, history, geographic origin, nationality, and/or religion. Groups differentiated by disability, gender or sexual orientation also count as diverse communities; “women lawyers,” for instance, is listed in the project publications as a separate diverse community, and does not necessarily include female lawyers of other diverse communities who were early path- breakers.

Unlike some projects undertaken by the Law Society, however, Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History is not a statistical or sociological study of the profession in recent times - the focus is on personal history of individual lawyers. The terminology used by Statistics Canada is not strictly followed here and does not address some types of diverse communities. In the case of living lawyers who participated in the project, it is important to note that they were asked to describe their own identities; their choices, where they differ from the standard names for groups, are retained in the individual biographies.  For deceased lawyers, communities of origin were identified and selected by examining census data and primary and secondary accounts including memoirs and biographical sketches. In about 10% of lawyers included in the project, more than one community has been identified.

Identifying the Early and Exceptional Lawyers


For as many diverse groups as possible, the goal was to identify not only the first male and first female lawyers, but the first few members of the first generation or cohort. This is because the work of diversifying the bar cannot be accomplished by one individual, though only one might be remembered. In addition to the early lawyers, the project seeks to recognize exceptional men an women - those lawyers distinguished by their path-breaking achievements within the legal field.  Examples are the first lawyers from a diverse community who were appointed to the judiciary or as King’s or Queen’s Counsel, the first law professors, benchers (members of the governing board of the Law Society), legal authors, or those who broke new ground in a field of law. Other lawyers have been included because of their service to their community of origin beyond their professional capacity or to the wider society. These individuals may be community leaders, politicians, activists against discrimination, or advocates for the disadvantaged.
 
To identify early and exceptional lawyers of diverse communities, the project manager contacted legal and community organizations affiliated with specific diverse communities and invited them to suggest the names of early and exceptional lawyers from their communities. Thanks to the assistance of these organizations and their members, the biographies include many of the early Greek, Dutch, South Asian, Hungarian, Korean, Chinese and Jewish lawyers of Ontario. (Please see Acknowledgements for the list of
participating individuals and organizations.) The first generation of women lawyers was also easy to name.
 
However, path-breakers from a number of racialized groups – Filipino, Vietnamese and other Southeast Asian, Armenian and other West Asian, and Latin American – have not yet been identified. Of the ethnocultural groups of European origin, the early and exceptional lawyers of Southern Europe including Spanish and Portuguese communities, and some Eastern European communities, are missing. Other groups - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Two-Spirited lawyers (the LGBT community), and Persons with Disabilities - are under-represented. They become more visible beginning in the 1980s, as do the communities they represent.
 
Files on all deceased lawyers exist in the Archives of the Law Society, and while helpful, often are limited to a few dates, names, and perhaps a war record, except for prominent legal achievers. In general, lawyers who have had exceptional careers have been simpler to locate than the early lawyers of any given diverse community. The paucity of official records also make it difficult to find individuals who anglicized their names before they attended law school. Therefore, newspapers, census records, histories, and other secondary sources were very useful. Sources that were used in the preparation of individual biographies are listed at the foot of each biography. For a complete list of consulted sources, see For More Information.
 
The result is a non-definitive list of names from which we compiled a catalog of short biographies and a list of interview subjects. To jump to the biographies, please click here. For the interviews, click here. Summary tables are included as guides to the biographies, but the visitor should remember that this is not a study based on sampling.
 
Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History is an ongoing project, through the Archives of the Law Society of Upper Canada, and we encourage you to submit names of lawyers who come within the scope of the project.

The Lawyers and the Profession, 1797 - 2011

 
In 1797, ten practising lawyers declared themselves to be the founding members of the Law Society of Upper Canada, a “learned and Honorable body to assist their fellow subjects.”3 The lawyers were henceforth self-governing, and from that year, only with the approval of the Law Society could a person be admitted to the profession or practise with the full rights and responsibilities of a lawyer in the colony.4 Though the first cohort of lawyers came from a variety of backgrounds, including an American of Dutch heritage and a Roman Catholic Scot,5 they were all male, all English-speaking, and well-connected.6 In these attributes, they were representative of the more privileged of the immigrants and resident peoples of the new colony of Upper Canada, the groups that continued to produce the vast majority of Ontario’s lawyers.
 
During the following hundred and fifty years, the demographic makeup of the profession changed slowly and minimally, despite the perseverance and creativity of people from less advantaged groups who wanted in and wanted to do well. Across the decades, early and exceptional lawyers of diverse communities tend to share certain traits. They are ambitious; they see barriers as challenges. The stories of their youth feature strong parents or other adults who believed in their abilities, believed in change, and advocated the profession as the path to a better life, whether measured in dollars or deeds.7  Would-be law students absorbed a vision of the law as a profitable, powerful, and even noble profession in which to spend a life. For most but not all of the lawyers whose biographies are included here, their pursuit of law led to a satisfying career; for some, it gave them the opportunity, and they took it, to “give back” to their communities of origin and to the wider society.8
 
However, it is also true that ambition, hard work, intelligence, and confidence were not enough to open the gates to the profession in its first hundred and fifty years. The early lawyers described in this project were the exceptions in a profession that stayed homogeneous through a mix of formal and informal barriers. Formal barriers to entry or practice are the easiest to identify and describe and sometimes came from beyond the regulatory structure of the profession itself. One of the most enduring effectively blocked persons belonging to the First Nations from entry. Until 1951, an Aboriginal person could lose his or her status under the Indian Act upon joining a profession or graduating from a university.9 In the history of the province, only two persons of Aboriginal heritage became lawyers before the 1970s.10
 
Those who supported a tightly guarded profession tried to justify their attitudes by claiming to defend professional standards or ethics: many genuinely believed that the admission of women and of less privileged immigrants of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, or their children, threatened the profession’s gentlemanly status and therefore lawyers’ ability to act on clients’ behalf. Some also believed that women and people from other races were constitutionally incapable of the intellectual and moral rigour that they admired in the best men of their profession. In their nativism and sexism, lawyers mirrored widespread beliefs. These same discriminatory attitudes also underlay immigration regulations that sorted and graded ethnocultural groups according to economic utility (would they make good farmers or miners?) and cultural attractiveness (how close to northern Europeans did they look, sound, and behave?)
 
At various points in its history, the Law Society has passed regulations and rules to try to prevent the entry of non-traditional lawyers. Women formed such a class. When Clara Brett Martin applied to be admitted as a law student, the benchers of the Law Society refused, arguing that the act that established the Law Society did not refer to women. Even after the provincial legislature passed special acts to allow women to be admitted as solicitors (1892) and as barristers (1896), the Law Society delayed making the changes to its eligibility requirements until 1897.  After Martin became the first female lawyer in the British Empire in that year, women began to appear in the Osgoode Hall Law School class photographs. However, the first generation of female lawyers was met with condescension and hostility in the law school, in lawyers’ offices, and in the courts.11 Many soon left the profession, though, like Eva Powley who went into the coal business in Manitoba, they took their legal knowledge into other commercial endeavours or into government careers.12 Women did not join or stay in the profession in large numbers until the 1970s, part of what is known as the second wave of feminism.
 
Language presented a different kind of hurdle to would-be lawyers and to those who needed legal services. Francophones, defined as French-speaking residents of Ontario, were present in the colony before its birth and their numbers increased in communities along the southern and eastern margins across the nineteenth century. In the regulations of the Law Society, there was no formal barrier to Francophones; indeed, a very few Francophone men, Charles Baby who was called to the bar in 1828 being the most prominent, did become lawyers.13 However, speaking English was a prerequisite to functioning in the legal profession. Although Francophone lawyers led the fight to protect French as a language of instruction in Ontario public schools,14 the language of law school, as well as of the courts, and the law itself was English. Not until the late 1970s did Francophones first gain the right to bilingual court proceedings. Only in 1984 did French became an official language of the court.15
 
In the boom years after the Second World War, first- and second-generation lawyers from Southern and Western Europe (Italians, Greeks, Dutch, Hungarians and Ukrainians) joined the profession in larger numbers. The linguistic monopoly granted to English also meant that for immigrant families who spoke Gaelic, German, Ukrainian, Yiddish, or anything but English, sending a scion into the profession might have to wait a generation.
 
On the other hand, non-English-speaking neighbourhoods and settlements provided a largely untapped opportunity for lawyers who spoke their language and understood their needs. Though fees were low, a general practice centered on real estate and wills and estates sustained many first-generation lawyers of diverse communities and brought legal services and better access to justice to immigrant clients.16 Enterprising lawyers could expand their clientele by learning new languages. Willem Meyer, a Dutch immigrant, went to school to learn Italian to service the many Italian immigrants who flooded into Toronto in the 1960s.17 Helen Okuloski worked in downtown Hamilton for fifty years serving a varied ethnic clientele “because of her understanding of their needs and backgrounds.”18
 
This traffic along the margins of the profession also appears in response to the thorny problem of articles. The requirement that law students spend time articling, or apprenticing, in the office of an established lawyer made entry to the profession narrow for would-be lawyers of diverse communities because cultural and social factors came into play. The Law Society allowed lawyers the freedom to choose their articling students. Not surprisingly, most, including established lawyers from diverse communities, selected young people from their own social class and ethnic circles. Young women like Grace Hewson who aspired to the profession rarely could find articling principals outside their own families, among fathers or brothers.19 But early lawyers from diverse communities had few mentors they could approach. In an early example, Delos Davis, a Black man, could not secure an articling position despite more than a decade of study and work as a commissioner and notary public. He eventually petitioned the legislature for admission to the profession under special statutes passed in 1884 and 1886.20 The best option, where there were no pathbreakers, was to article with lawyers of other diverse communities.  Jewish law students found positions with Roman Catholic principals; a Black student began at a Jewish firm and with a Polish lawyer.21 For the firm offering the position it was a chance to gain fresh legal talent at a discount. Early lawyers were sometimes hired as associates by lawyers of other diverse communities, often to mutual benefit.22 Articling remained difficult for law students of racialized communities well into the 1980s.
 
Lawyers of diverse communities considered that the rules that purported to uphold professional ethics, such as the long-standing ban on advertising, also protected the incomes of the incumbents.23 Stories of agreeable, prize-winning students from diverse communities who barely scraped a living for years after being called to the bar illustrate the imperfect connection between merit and success.24 In periods in which the profession was overcrowded, collegial attacks on non-traditional lawyers and their undercutting practices were stepped up. Discipline hearings held by the Law Society before the mid-twentieth century often resulted from complaints not by clients but from other lawyers, and it may be that Law Society benchers tended to be heavy-handed in using their powers to discipline in the cases of lawyers of diverse communities.25 Other firms were willing to take on bright young people if they anglicized their names.26 Some refused, but others had already decided before or during law school that changing their names was one more prerequisite to a law career.27
 
Diverse communities grow, split, combine, and fade away, as illustrated by the history in the nineteenth century of Irish Catholics in the profession. Ontario lawyers were almost always Protestant, specifically Anglican before 1850, though a few Scottish Catholics who identified themselves less by their religion than by their Highland origins were among the leading members of the bar.28 The first significant challenge to the religious homogeneity of the profession came from the waves of desperate Irish Catholics who began to arrive in the 1840s and quickly outnumbered the more prosperous and earlier Protestant Irish settlers. However, Irish Catholic law students could appeal to the nationalism of Irish Protestant lawyers and make professional connections on the basis of nationality that smoothed over religious frictions embedded in issues such as separate schooling. The negative image of the “famine Irish” gradually faded as the Irish assimilated into the growing middle class in the late nineteenth century. The success of the community’s lawyers in politics as well as law accelerated this assimilation.29 However, Roman Catholics of all nationalities continued to be under-represented in the profession: difficulties in finding articling positions or moving beyond a faith-based clientele did not entirely disappear and even worsened, as in some establishment firms in the mid-twentieth century.30
 
Whereas a common national heritage helped Irish Canadian lawyers surmount religious differences, the history of Jewish people in Ontario’s legal profession illustrates the reverse. Early Jewish lawyers had a common religion but were divided by cultural and linguistic differences. As Christopher Moore notes, the first Jewish lawyer, Samuel King, who was born in Ontario to a wealthy family and who created a successful establishment practice from 1891, did help young Jewish law students by offering them articling positions.31 Several other Ontario-born Jews also enjoyed prominent careers.32 But by the 1920s, there were many more young Jewish men who wanted to be lawyers than there were established Jewish barristers to aid them. As important, these post-First World War law students were of mainly Eastern European birth or origin. Once called to the bar, this generation of Jewish lawyers did not join the establishment. They were isolated from the mainstream of the profession by a cluster of interconnected differences – culture, language, class as well as religion – and by the 1930s, they were facing rising anti-Semitism. For these lawyers, marginal practice in a small all-Jewish office was one typical pattern.
 
Because early lawyers of diverse communities rarely achieved the most desirables types of practice, some moved into innovative directions and changed the law in the process. Jewish lawyers developed new specialties like bankruptcy and automobile law.33 An early Ukrainian lawyer became one of the province’s first divorce lawyers.34
 
Other early and exceptional lawyers of diverse communities have chosen to fight discrimination and injustice directed against their own and other communities, inside and outside the profession. Toronto’s first Black lawyer, Lionel Cross, spoke out against racism and forced the authorities to prosecute illegal Klu Klux Klan activities in the 1930s.35 The law has often been a stepping stone to politics; some lawyer-politicians from minority groups have used their knowledge, connections, and platforms to address discrimination. E. Frederick Singer was the first Jewish politician in Canada to promote legislation to protect Jews from discrimination.36 Other lawyers reached out to underserviced and disadvantaged groups beyond their community of origin.37  Irving Himel was a Jewish lawyer and civil rights activist who worked with Chinese Canadian lawyer Kew Dock Yip and others to get the Chinese Exclusion Law repealed in 1947.38 Women lawyers have been leaders of the feminist cause on many fronts. In recent decades, lawyers of diverse communities have focused on human rights and access to justice for law.39 Many lawyers of diverse communities are advocates of philanthropic and cultural activities within their own communities.40
 
As Michael Ornstein’s studies for the Law Society document, the face of the law in Ontario has changed dramatically in the last quarter century.41 Today the majority of law students are women. The new ethnic and cultural diversity of the profession follows, but not in perfect synchronization, changes in Canadian immigration policies and patterns. After 1967, immigrants were admitted under the new points system in which they were judged no longer on race but on qualifications. A few men and women who had been lawyers in their home countries gained accreditation and joined the bar of Ontario,42though the numbers of Black, Chinese and other visible minority lawyers remained tiny until the 1980s.
 
Though Ontario’s diversity is now more closely represented in the members of the profession, problems of access and equity remain. Diverse communities, particularly racialized groups, continue to be under-represented on the bench, as teachers in law schools, in corporate law and in the most lucrative branches of the profession, and over-represented in small firms and sole practice. Articling is still a thorny issue. To further their members’ professional goals, and as a framework for community service, several communities have formed legal organizations for members of their own diverse communities. One example is the Delos Davis Law Guild, founded in 1978 to honour an early Black lawyer.43 Individual lawyers have worked towards equality in the legal profession.44But admission to the profession is formally open to members of all diverse communities. Student bodies of law schools are diversified. The Diversifying the Bar:  Lawyers Make History project is one effort to acknowledge the pathbreakers, remembered and forgotten, of diverse communities as they changed the profession and the practice of law in this province.

Accessing The Biographies

 
Through biographical snapshots of lawyers living and deceased, this project identifies and remembers the men and women who diversified the bar in Ontario. If you can suggest the name of an early or exceptional lawyer, please contact us.
 
For each of the nearly three hundred early and exceptional lawyers of diverse communities, there are basic biographical facts, a brief biography (up to 150 words but often much shorter), and sources used. Living lawyers wrote or edited their own biographical details, including the name or names of their diverse community, and gave permission to have their information published in these pages. (Lawyers who were invited to participate but have not yet responded are not in this list.)
 
If you’d like to browse the biographies of lawyers, click one of the links below:
 
For biographies arranged by year called to the bar,

click below for those called to the bar from 1797 to 1940:

http://www.lsuc.on.ca/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=2147484590

click below for those called to the bar from 1941 to the present:
 
http://www.lsuc.on.ca/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=2147484591
 
The biographies are ordered chronologically, by year called to the bar, then alphabetically by last name. Many of the entries include photographs.
 
For biographies arranged by diverse community, click here:

http://www.lsuc.on.ca/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8507

Lawyers are grouped by their community or heritage, arranged by name of the community in alphabetical order, and then by the year the individual was admitted to the profession in Ontario. (Lawyers associated with more than one community will have more than one entry). This file does not include photographs.

Accessing the Summary Tables

 
The following summary tables are also available:
 
Alphabetical List of Early and Exceptional Lawyers of Diverse Communities
 
All early and exceptional lawyers of diverse communities whose biographies are included in this project are listed here, ordered alphabetically by last then first name. The entry on each lawyer also includes gender, birth and death years where relevant, year called to the bar, and name of diverse community.
 
If you are interested in gender and the legal profession, choose:
 
Early and Exceptional Women Lawyers of Diverse Communities
Or
Early and Exceptional Male Lawyers of Diverse Communities
 
In these files, lawyers are listed by year admitted to the profession, then by name. Entries include the name of the diverse community or communities, year of birth, and year of death where applicable.

The Interviews and Roundtables

 
The Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History project is intended to encourage lawyers to capture their personal and professional experiences by writing their memoirs. It also includes a small number of group and individual interviews with lawyers chosen from a range of communities. Their purpose is to explore in more detail the relationship between becoming and being a lawyer, and being a member of a diverse community.

The products of the interviews include audio recordings, full transcripts or excerpts, copied images, and comments by the interviewees. These can be accessed by contacting the Archives of the Law Society of Upper Canada. Some of these will be available online in the near future.

By May 2012, the following interviews, by A. Kirk-Montgomery, have been conducted:
  • Thora Espinet – lawyer of Black community
  • John Geller (lawyer), Sybil Geller – Jewish lawyer and spouse
  • Lucy Meyer – widow of Willem Meyer (lawyer), born in Holland
  • Delia Opekokew – Aboriginal lawyer
  • Nicholas Paul – Greek heritage
  • The Honourable Ray Stortini – Italian heritage
  • David Shannon – Person with Disabilities
  • Christopher Watkins – Person with Disabilities
  • John Yaremko – Ukrainian heritage
 
The Diversifying the Bar: Lawyers Make History team also conducted two roundtable seminars in 2010, one with lawyers of Greek heritage, and another with lawyers of Hungarian heritage.
 
This project is ongoing, and will become the responsibility of the Law Society of Upper Canada Archives, whose mandate is to ensure the preservation of the heritage of the legal profession in Ontario. To make the roll of early and exceptional lawyers of diverse communities as complete and accurate as possible, please make a suggestion.
 
Allison Kirk-Montgomery
Last published May 2012


1. See Michael Ornstein, “Racialization and Gender of Lawyers in Ontario,” Law Society of Upper Canada, April 2010.
3. Statutes of Upper Canada, 1794, 37 Geo. III c. 13, “An Act for the Better Regulating the Practice of the Law.
4. In the nineteenth century, the legal profession also included attorneys and solicitors who competed with barristers in the lower courts and in office practice. After 1889, most lawyers were admitted to practice as both barristers and solicitors under Law Society regulations. See John D Arnup, "Fusion of the Professions," Law Society Gazette 5, no. 1 (1971): 38-53; Curtis J. Cole, "A Learned and Honorable Body: The Professionalization of the Ontario Bar, 1867-1929," University of Western Ontario, 1987.
5. See biographies of Nicholas Hagerman and Angus Macdonnell.
6. Christopher Moore, The Law Society of Upper Canada and Ontario Lawyers, 1797-1997 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), 13-4, for the history of the Law Society’s beginnings.
7. See biography of Tmima Cohn.
8. See interview, Jack and Sybil Geller.
9. See Constance Backhouse on First Nations lawyer Norman Lickers, “Gender and Race in the Construction of ‘Legal Professionalism’: Historical Perspectives,” Paper presented to the colloquia on Ontario’s Advisory Committee on Professionalism. Law Society of Upper Canada, 2003, 2-12.
10. See biographies of Solomon White and Norman Lickers.
11. See biography of Clara Brett Martin, and the works of Joan Brockman and Mary Jane Mossman, among others cited in For More Information.
12. See entries for Eva Maude Powley, Helen Grossman, Lovedy Campeau.
13. See biography of Charles Baby.
14. See entries for Napoleon Belcourt and Jean-Pierre Beaulne.
15. Jean Yves Pelletier, Nos Magistrats (Ottawa: Éditions L'Interligne, 1989).
16. See, for example, entries for Frederick Floras, Peter Isaacs.
17. See entry for Willem Meyer.
18. See entry for Helen Okuloski
19. See biographies of Grace Hewson.
20. See the entry for Delos Rogest Davis.
21. See entry for Lincoln Alexander.
22. See interview with Thora Espinet.
23. Backhouse, “Gender and Race in the Construction of ‘Legal Professionalism’.”
24. For two of many examples, see Bora Laskin and John Yaremko entries.
25. Moore, Law Society of Upper Canada, 151.
26. See interview, John Yaremko.
27. A number of early Greek and Jewish lawyers, particularly those of Eastern European, origin anglicized their names.
28. J. K. Johnson, Becoming Prominent: Regional Leadership in Upper Canada, 1791-1841 (Kingston & Montreal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1989), 31, passim, provides attributes of the most prominent lawyers who were also politicians in Upper Canada. As Bruce W. Hodgins notes of lawyer and politician John Sandfield Macdonald, Scottish Catholics tended to be secular in politics and shared typically Protestant attitudes; “John Sandfield Macdonald,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, v.10 (University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2000), Web.
29. Mark G. McGowan, The Waning of the Green: Catholics, the Irish and Identity in Toronto, 1887 – 1922(Montreal & Kingston: Queen’s University Press, 1999), 215.30 See Christopher 30. Moore, McCarthy Tetrault: Building Canada's Premier Law Firm 1855-2005 (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2005).
31. See biography of Samuel King.
32. See entry for Gabriel Levy.
33. See biography of Benjamin Luxenberg; Moore, The Law Society of Upper Canada, 201.
34. See entry for John Yatchew.
35. See entry for E. Lionel Cross.
36. See entry for E. Frederick Singer, also Nathan Phillips. James W. St. G. Walker, “The ‘Jewish Phase’ in the Movement for Racial Equality in Canada,” Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal 34,1 (Mar. 2002), 1-29.
37. See entries for J. L. Cohen, Shin Imai, Gretta Grant, among many.
38. See Irving Himel biography.
39. Among many activist lawyers, see Solomon White, Charles Roach, Lillian Ma, Gary Yee, Maryka Omatsu, Shin Imai, Keith Norton, Susan Ursel, Christopher Watkins, Raj Anand, John Yaremko, Margaret Hyndman, Helen Kinnear, Bertha Wilson.
40. A few examples are Olga Chumak, John Yaremko, Norman Lickers.
41. Michael Ornstein, “The Changing Face of the Ontario Legal Profession, 1971-2001,” and “Racialization and Gender of Lawyers in Ontario,” available on the Law Society of Upper Canada website.
42. See biography of Syed Mumtaz Ali, who was the first South Asian lawyer to be accredited and was called to the bar in Ontario in 1962.
43. See biography of Vibert Rosemay.
44. See entry for Juanita Westmoreland-Traoré.
Terms or Concepts Explained