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Main Area(s) of Law/Legal Services

Main Area(s) of Law Descriptions for Lawyers
Main Area(s) of Legal Services for Paralegals

Main Area(s) of Law Descriptions for Lawyers

Aboriginal Law 

Aboriginal Law refers to legal issues related to the recognition, protection and interpretation of rights and traditional practices of Aboriginal people, and the enforcement and interpretation of treaties between the government and Aboriginal people. It also can also include providing legal services to Aboriginal people in other areas of law, such as criminal, family, wills and estates, and child protection matters.

ADR/Mediation Services 

Alternative Dispute Resolution refers to procedures for settling disputes by means other than litigation (outside the courtroom) and can include neutral evaluation, negotiation, conciliation, mediation and arbitration, or a combination of any of these methods.

Administrative Law 

Administrative Law deals with the review of administrative decisions made by government or government organizations, usually involving administrative tribunals, boards, or agencies.

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Law 

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Law deals with the rights and obligations of debtors, creditors, and third parties in insolvency situations.

Civil Litigation - Plaintiff 

Civil Litigation - Plaintiff refers to the representation of the claimant or party who initiates a claim or lawsuit in a civil dispute before a court, administrative tribunal, arbitrator or mediator.

Civil Litigation - Defendant 

Civil Litigation - Defendant refers to the representation of a person or entity against whom some type of relief is being sought in a civil dispute before a court, administrative tribunal, arbitrator or mediator.

Construction Law 

Construction Law involves advising parties in the construction industry. It includes the negotiation and formation of contracts, provision of legal advice on construction matters, representation for tenders or proposals, preparation of documents, and the resolution of legal disputes.

Corporate/Commercial Law 

Corporate/Commercial Law involves legal advice to clients engaged in corporate, business & commercial activities. It includes the creation & termination of entities, negotiation/formation of contracts, reorganizations, mergers & acquisitions, corporate governance, securities, private equity/debt financing, creditor/debtor rights & remedies, leasing, franchising, non-profit corporations, tax-related matters, representation before courts/tribunals, and the resolution of business disputes.

Criminal/Quasi-Criminal Law 

Criminal Law involves the prosecution, defence and appeal of criminal or quasi-criminal charges, and related matters before all levels of courts and other forums.

Employment/Labour Law 

Employment Law deals with the relationship between individual employees and their employers in non-unionized workplaces, including wages, benefits, employment standards, workplace safety, and the termination of employment. Labour Law deals with the relationship between employees and employers in unionized work environments including trade union organization, collective agreement negotiation and enforcement, and the arbitration and settlement of disputes between workers and management.

Environmental Law 

Environmental Law refers to the civil, criminal, quasi-criminal, administrative and constitutional framework for the protection, restoration, conservation and management of the environment.

Family/Matrimonial Law 

Family Law deals with all aspects of domestic relationships within or outside of marriage, including separation and divorce, property division, financial issues, custody/access of children, child protection cases, adoption, and domestic contracts.

Franchise Law 

Franchise Law relates to the representation of franchisors and franchisees. It covers matters including franchise agreements, compliance, trademarks, marketing, distribution, shipping, tax implications, contracts, and liability.

Immigration Law 

Immigration Law encompasses matters arising out of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, 2002 and Regulations, the Citizenship Act and Regulations, and related statutes including matters involving temporary entry to Canada, permanent entry, enforcement, citizenship, review and appellate remedies.

Intellectual Property Law 

Intellectual Property Law deals with the law relating to creations of the mind, such as inventions and literary and artistic works, as well as the symbols, names, pictures, designs and models used in business. It includes patents, trademarks, copyright, industrial design, integrated circuit typography and trade secrets.

Real Estate Law 

Real Estate Law deals with matters relating to real property interests, including transfers, conveyances, title and related searches, leases, easements,condominiums, cooperatives and other forms of co-ownerships, mortgages and mortgage enforcement, liens, zoning and land use planning, real estate development and financing, real estate remedies and litigation, title insurance and determination of real property rights.

Securities Law 

Securities Law deals with the body of law that governs the issuance and selling of securities, including the representation of investors or companies suspected of violating securities law or acting contrary to the public interest.

Tax Law 

Tax Law refers to the application of statutory, regulatory, constitutional, and common-law rules through which the government levies economic transactions.

Wills, Estates, Trusts Law 

Wills, Estates and Trusts Law deals with assisting clients to plan for incapacity and preparing documents such as Wills, Powers of Attorney, and trusts. It also includes estate planning and estate administration, as well as assisting attorneys and trustees in the execution of their duties and assisting beneficiaries and claimants assert or defend their rights.

Workplace Safety and Insurance Law 

Workplace Safety and Insurance Law deals with the Workplace Safety and Insurance Act and regulations; the operation of the Workplace Safety & Insurance Board (WSIB), including its policy, case law, appeal and hearing processes; and the Workplace Safety & Insurance Appeals Tribunal (WSIAT), including its procedures, case law, and interrelation with the WSIB and the courts.

Ontario Court of Justice Provincial Offences Act matters 

Ontario Court of Justice Provincial Offences Actmatters deal with charges under the Provincial Offences Act, which is a provincial statute that sets procedures for the prosecution of offences under municipal bylaws and other provincial statutes and regulations, including the Highway Traffic Act,Compulsory Automobile Insurance Act,Liquor Licence Act,Trespass to Property Act,Environmental Protection Act,and Occupational Health and Safety Act.

Ontario Court of Justice - Summary Conviction Offences 

Summary Conviction Offences deals with the prosecution and defence of criminal charges under the Criminal Code in the Ontario Court of Justice that have a maximum penalty of six months imprisonment and/or a fine of not more than $5000.(Hybrid offences are deemed indictable until the Crown Attorney makes an election to proceed by summary conviction. Indictable offences do not fall within the permitted scope of activity for paralegals.)

Workers' Compensation 

Workers' Compensation deals with employees who are injured at work or sick with a disease caused by work, and who may qualify for workers' compensation benefits. This area of legal services is governed by the Ontario's Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, which outlines which workers qualify for which benefits. The Act is administered by the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB).

Small Claims Court matters 

Small Claims Court deals with representing parties in Small Claims Court, which includes claims for damages or return of property worth $25,000 or less.

Property Tax Assessment 

Property Tax Assessment deals with requests for property taxes to be reduced, refunded or cancelled. Requests for reconsideration are made to the Municipal Property Assessment Corporation (MPAC) and appeals about property assessments and property taxes are made to the Assessment Review Board (ARB).

Statutory Accident Benefits Schedule matters (SABS) 

SABS deals with the Statutory Accident Benefits Schedule, which refers to insurance coverage for accident benefits that provide compensation to a person, passengers or pedestrians who suffer injury in an automobile collision. A paralegal may assist with a SABS claim for benefits (excluding a claim of an individual who has or appears to have a catastrophic impairment within the meaning of the SABS), including mediation, evaluations, arbitration or related proceedings under the Insurance Act.

Human Rights 

Human Rights includes claims of discrimination and harassment brought under the Ontario Human Rights Code to the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario.

Landlord and Tenant 

Landlord and Tenant relates to representation of landlords and tenants regardingtheir rights and responsibilities for residential rental units under the Residential Tenancies Act.

Other Tribunals 

Other Tribunals deals with hearings before tribunals and boards. Paralegals mayrepresent parties before tribunals or boards established under an Act of the Legislature of Ontario or under an Act of Parliament, such as the Financial Services Tribunal, the Social Justice Tribunals Ontario, the Ontario Labour Relations Board, the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario, the Health Professionals Appeal and Review Board, and the Safety, Licensing Appeals and Standards Tribunals Ontario.
 

Main Area(s) of Legal Services for Paralegals

Ontario Court of Justice Provincial Offences Act matters 

Ontario Court of Justice Provincial Offences Actmatters deal with charges under the Provincial Offences Act, which is a provincial statute that sets procedures for the prosecution of offences under municipal bylaws and other provincial statutes and regulations, including the Highway Traffic Act,Compulsory Automobile Insurance Act,Liquor Licence Act,Trespass to Property Act,Environmental Protection Act,and Occupational Health and Safety Act.

Ontario Court of Justice - Summary Conviction Offences 

Summary Conviction Offences deals with the prosecution and defence of criminal charges under the Criminal Code in the Ontario Court of Justice that have a maximum penalty of six months imprisonment and/or a fine of not more than $5000.(Hybrid offences are deemed indictable until the Crown Attorney makes an election to proceed by summary conviction. Indictable offences do not fall within the permitted scope of activity for paralegals.)

Workers' Compensation 

Workers' Compensation deals with employees who are injured at work or sick with a disease caused by work, and who may qualify for workers' compensation benefits. This area of legal services is governed by the Ontario's Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, which outlines which workers qualify for which benefits. The Act is administered by the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB).

Small Claims Court matters 

Small Claims Court deals with representing parties in Small Claims Court, which includes claims for damages or return of property worth $25,000 or less.

Property Tax Assessment 

Property Tax Assessment deals with requests for property taxes to be reduced, refunded or cancelled. Requests for reconsideration are made to the Municipal Property Assessment Corporation (MPAC) and appeals about property assessments and property taxes are made to the Assessment Review Board (ARB).

Statutory Accident Benefits Schedule matters (SABS) 

SABS deals with the Statutory Accident Benefits Schedule, which refers to insurance coverage for accident benefits that provide compensation to a person, passengers or pedestrians who suffer injury in an automobile collision. A paralegal may assist with a SABS claim for benefits (excluding a claim of an individual who has or appears to have a catastrophic impairment within the meaning of the SABS), including mediation, evaluations, arbitration or related proceedings under the Insurance Act.

Human Rights 

Human Rights includes claims of discrimination and harassment brought under the Ontario Human Rights Code to the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario.

Landlord and Tenant 

Landlord and Tenant relates to representation of landlords and tenants regardingtheir rights and responsibilities for residential rental units under the Residential Tenancies Act.

Other Tribunals 

Other Tribunals deals with hearings before tribunals and boards. Paralegals mayrepresent parties before tribunals or boards established under an Act of the Legislature of Ontario or under an Act of Parliament, such as the Financial Services Tribunal, the Social Justice Tribunals Ontario, the Ontario Labour Relations Board, the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario, the Health Professionals Appeal and Review Board, and the Safety, Licensing Appeals and Standards Tribunals Ontario.